Anatomy and the Biomechanics of Movement

by Sep 12, 2022Clinical0 comments

A great exercise session is not without its hazards; a sprained ankle, a twist of your knees, or a crack of your ribs. However, an understanding of biomechanics will help you minimize the chances of injuries by applying the principles of sports science. If you desire to improve your sports performance and reduce sport-related injuries, you should get basic knowledge of anatomy and biomechanics of movement.

Beyond sports and exercise, understanding human anatomy and biomechanics are essential for wellbeing. Figuring out how our bodies need to move properly can help us stay healthier and age better. No matter your age or skill level, biomechanical analysis can help you improve your performance and reduce pain.

If you wish to understand more about your body and how to ensure an accident-free exercise regime, Keep reading to learn more about anatomy and the biomechanics of movement.

 Anatomy: The Human Musculoskeletal System

The best place to start with understanding your body and your daily movement is Anatomy. Anatomy is a field in the biological sciences concerned with the identification and description of the body structures of living things.

Movement is achievable through the contraction and relaxation of the muscles. The musculoskeletal system (locomotor system) provides our body with movement, stability, shape, and support. When we want to move, the brain sends signals via the nervous system to the muscles. The muscles then contract to create movement. Your muscles work in relation to the tendons and joints, which help your muscles move your skeletal bones to accomplish movement.

The musculoskeletal is divided into two broad systems:

  • Muscular system: This includes all types of muscles in the body. Skeletal muscles, in particular, are the ones that act on the body joints to produce movements.
  • Skeletal system: the main component is the bone. Bones articulate with each other and form the joints, providing our bodies with a hard-core, yet mobile, skeleton. The integrity and function of the bones and joints are supported by the accessory structures of the skeletal system; articular cartilage, ligaments, and bursae.

Anatomical terms of movement are used to describe the actions of muscles upon the skeleton. They include:

  • Flexion and extension: This is the movement of decreasing or increasing the angle between the bones involved in the movement, respectively. This motion takes place in the sagittal plane around a frontal axis. An example of flexion is bending the leg at the knee joint, whereas extension would be straightening the knee from a flexed position.
  • Adduction and abduction: These movements bring the parts of the body towards or away from the midline, respectively. These movements are carried out in the frontal plane around a sagittal axis. For example, abduction of the arm at the shoulder joint involves moving the arm away from the side of the body, while adduction involves bringing it back towards the body.
  • Rotation: is the movement in which a part of the body rotates around its vertical (longitudinal) axis in the transverse plane. This movement is defined relative to the midline, where internal rotation involves rotating the segment towards the midline, while external rotation involves moving it away from the midline. Moving your head from side to side is an example of this movement.
  • Supination and pronation: are special types of rotatory movements usually used to describe the movements of the forearm. Supination is the movement in which a person turns their hand, wrist, and forearm upward. If you turn your hand to receive money, you have just made this move. These movements are also sometimes used to describe movements in the ankle and foot, in which supination means rolling the foot outwards, while pronation means rolling the foot inwards.

Biomechanics of Movement: A key to Sport Improvement

Mechanics is a branch of physics that is concerned with the description of movement and how forces create movement. Biomechanics is concerned with living things and how the body works together to stimulate movement.

Biomechanics is part of the larger field of kinesiology; Kinesiology is the scientific study of human movement; while Biomechanics deals with the application of mechanics to biological systems.

Biomechanics are extremely sport specific. Simply put, that means that the techniques or movements necessary to jump are extremely different from those required to hit a racquetball. No two sports are the same, even if they possess similarities, hence biomechanical analysis is essential.

Elements of Biomechanics

Here are key areas that biomechanics focuses on. They include:

  • Dynamics: This is concerned with studying systems that are in motion with acceleration and deceleration.
  • Kinematics: This involves describing the effect of forces on a system, and motion patterns including linear and angular changes in velocity over time as well as position, displacement, velocity, and acceleration.
  • Kinetics: This is examining what causes motion, the forces, and moments at work.
  • Statics: Here, systems that are in equilibrium, either at rest or moving at a constant velocity are studied.

 Importance of Biomechanics to our lives:

  • Identification of quality techniques for improving sports performance. Athletes of all ages and skill levels can benefit from biomechanical analysis whether it’s for pain reduction or to increase performance.
  • It can be used to determine the safest method for performing a particular sport or exercise task.
  • It is necessary to assess muscle recruitment and loading.
  • Physiotherapists can analyse sports and exercise equipment e.g. shoes, surfaces, and others using biomechanics.

All humans move according to their mechanical design; and since all humans are created with a very similar anatomical design, we all have the same movement patterns.

  • Linear Motion: This is movement along a straight or curved pathway in which all points or parts of a body or an object move the same distance in the same amount of time. For example, a swimmer moving from point A to point B in a straight line indicates Linear movement.
  • Angular motion (sometimes referred to as Rotary Motion) is moving around some fixed point so that different regions of the same body segment or object do not move through the same distance in a given amount of time. In sports like cricket or baseball, the player is required to swing their bat to hit the ball. The motion of the swing is a type of angular motion. The batsman swings the bat with a steady angular velocity around an axis.


You can decide to take your exercise and fitness regime to the next level by getting a biomechanical analysis to help you improve your performance and reduce your chances of getting hurt while you exercise.

As human beings, we are not exempted from injuries and we do not always achieve maximum performance at all times. Biomechanics is vital to understanding how forces can create movement and how they can affect our performance. You may not understand some of the reasons behind your muscle stiffness and increased accidents while working or exercising. Don’t give up! We can help you with that.

Avia Performance offers gym membership, coaching, and clinical treatment. We have state-of-the-art equipment and experienced physiotherapists who work holistically with you to achieve improved performance and provide optimal care for movement-related injuries or conditions. We believe in the uniqueness of everyone and work personally to provide you with the solution you need. Need to speak to us, Call 0407 544 794 or email us at








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